Two options for copying files are below.
- Robocopy - More details can be found at Robocopy
- Copy_Item cmdlet - More details can be found at Copy-Item
Copying Folder structure Only
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Flattening Folder structure - Copy all files from nested folders to a single folder
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Copy same folder structure
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Git for windows is normally shipped with long path support disabled due to mysys not supporting file path/name greater than 260 character. While cloning repository with large nested directory structute may cause error “file name too long”. This can be fixed by below command. It can be executed using powershell or cmd directly in project ( or anywhere if git variable is available)
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In previous post, I have mentioned different ways of identifying web elements using XPath . Very often , we will have to identify child elements while automating using selenium. Let us consider below example . This is an HTML layout of table
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Assuming we need to iterate across all the rows to identify which row have the name “Eve” and then do some action on that row . This can be achieved by below
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Important step here is to use “.” in XPath so that selenium limit its search for current node rather than everywhere on document. This will help to identify elements with respective to another element.
Further details of how to use XPath can be found in https://www.w3schools.com/xml/xpath_syntax.asp
Main ones are
- / - Search from root
- // - Search anywhere in document which match selection
- . - select current node
- .. - select parent of current node
Very frequently testers will meet a situation where they need to take screenshot of webpage they are testing , either for base line or as a proof of test result. This is same with automated testing . Even though automated test cases have their own of way of publishing test results, it is always desirable to keep a proof of result.. Screenshot come to help in this regards. In this blog post , I will explain , how to take a screenshot with Selenium Web Driver with C#. In future I will add another couple of post to explain , how to consolidate the screenshots into a PDF document.
In .NET binding, we have an interface called ITakesScreenshot , which helps to capture screenshot of active window. Below code will help to take screenshot and save it in the path specified while calling the function
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During testing we will sometimes come up to situations where developers are not following best practises for testability . We will frequently come up situations where elements doesn’t have any unique identifiable property. XPath axis comes to help in those situations. We can identify elements using various XPath Properties
List of various XPath Axis are available in https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/XPath/Axes If you have well-defined properties to identify the element, use them as your locator. Please read locator strategy Using XPath and Other Parameters
Below are major one’s which we will frequently use
This selects all ancestors of current node. That will include parent, grand parents etc Eg :
This selects all children of current node. That will include child, grand child etc Eg:
Th selects everything after the closing tag of current node Eg:
This selects all siblings after the closing tah of current node. Eg:
This selects everything prior to current node Eg:
This selects all siblings prior to current node Eg:
This selects all children of current node
This select parent of current node
As usual , you can always use combinations of above in your test. Statements can be constructed in the same way as we traverse the XPath axis
Last , but not least… we can also use regular expression in XPath.
XPath is XML query language which can be used for selecting nodes in XML. Hence it can be used to identify elements from DOM since they are represented as XHTML documents. Selenium WebDriver also supports XPath for locating elements. They also help to look for elements in both direction and hence it is generally slow compared to all other locator strategy. We can use XPath with both absolute path and relative path.
Absolute Path refers to specific location in DOM, by considering it’s complete hierarchy. However this is not an ideal locator strategy since it makes your test very brittle. The absolute path will change if there is any change/realignment etc in UI.
Example of Xpath using absolute path is as below
With relative Path , we can find element directly without entire structure. It helps to look out for any elements which matches with specified relative path . Example for a relative path based locator strategy is as below.
Note: Relative XPath starts with “//”
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Relative XPath - With Attributes
If we need to further narrow down our location strategy, we can use Attributes along with relative XPath. There may be situations where we need to multiple attributes to uniquely identify an element. We can also specify locators to identify for ANY attribute
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Relative XPath - Partial Match
Sometimes there may be situations where element attributes like ID are dynamically generated. Those will generally have some unique part in attributes likeID and remaining will be generated dynamically , which will keep on changing. This will need a locator strategy which will help us to identify elements using partial match. Main types are
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Assert.AreEqual vs Assert.AreSame
Very frequently I use Assert.AreEqual and Assert.AreSame for doing assertions in the code. Below is high level difference between both.
Assert.AreSame checks whether both comparing objects are exactly the same ( reference indicate same object in memory) .It is normally known as Reference Equality
Assert.AreEqual checks whether both objects contain same value. It is normally known as Value Equality. For primitive value types ( like int, bool) this is straight forward. But for other types ( especially user defined objects) , it is depends on how the type defines equality.
Hence Assert.AreEqual will fail ( most of the time) when we compare two objects. This link have some discussion point about the same.
Locators are html properties of a web element , which can be considered as an address of the element. An element will have various html properties. We can use Firebug extension or Chrome dev tools to identify different locators of an element.
Selenium Web Driver provides two different methods for identifying html elements .
FindElement for WebDriver and WebElement Class. When locating element matching specified criteria, it looks through DOM( Document Object Model) for matching element and return the first matching element. If there are no matching element, it will throw NoSuchElementFoundException
FindElements for WebDriver and WebElement Class. When locating element matching specified criteria, it looks through DOM( Document Object Model) for matching element and return a list of all matching element. If there are no matching elements, then it will return an empty list .
Note: Both of them doesn’t support regular expression for finding element. Simple way to do that will be to get list of all elements and then iterate to find a matching regular expression
There are multiple criteria which we can use for looking for an element. FindElement and FindElements work exactly same way except for above difference. Different critieria are
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Using any attributes other than XPath and CssSelector are straight forward. More about using XPath and CssSelector in next blog.
In Specflow, Step definitions are global. So a scenario can have multiple step definitions which can be present in different classes. Sometimes, there arise a need to share the data between steps residing in different classes. How do we do it??
There are multiple ways to do it
Let us look into more details about how to store and retrieve data using Scenario Context .
How do we add a key value pair to Scenario Context ? It is as simple as below
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How do we retrieve the value from ScenarioContext ?
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Note: While retrieving , scenarioContext.Current always return an object . Hence we need use explicit casting while retrieving data from scenario context.
In Nut Shell,
**Set a value for a key ( Store data ) ** ScenarioContext.Current.Add(string key, object value); **Get a value of the key ( Retrieve data) ** var value =(Type) ScenarioContext.Current.[string Key]; var value = ScenarioContext.Current.Get(string Key);
We can use this for storing and passing objects as well
Example of storing webdriver object is as below.(where "browser" is current webdriver object ) ScenarioContext.Current.Add("driver1", browser); IWebDriver driver2 = (IWebDriver)ScenarioContext.Current["driver1"];